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30-08-2013 Valletjes in de schaakopening

Dit is een engelstalig artikeltje met tal van voorbeelden.
nb. De zetten zijn in engelse notatie, er worden geen diagrammen gebruikt.
Ter toelichting op de letteraanduiding in de stukken:
K = K (King)
Q = D (Dame)
R = T (Toren)
B = L (Bishop)
I = I (knight)
P = P (Pawn)

A Trap is a way of surreptitiously luring a chess opponent into
making a mistake or a move whose natural reply results in a
disadvantage to the replying player.

In this brief introduction to some of the best-known traps, we will
look at:

* Checkmates in the opening
* Blackburne Shilling Gambit in the Italian Game
* Elephant Trap in the Queen's Gambit Declined
* Halosar Trap in the Blackmar-Diemer Gambit
* Kieninger Trap in the Budapest Gambit
* Lasker Trap in the Albin Counter-Gambit
* Ligal Trap in the Philidor Defense
* Magnus Smith Trap in the Sicilian Defense
* Marshall Trap in the Petrov's Defense
* Monticelli Trap in the Bogo-Indian Defense
* Mortimer Trap in the Ruy Lopez
* Noah's Ark Trap in the Ruy Lopez
* Rubinstein Trap in the Queen's Gambit Declined
* Siberian Trap in the Sicilian Defense
* Tarrasch Trap in the Ruy Lopez
* Wurzburger Trap in the Vienna Gambit

1. Checkmates in the opening

In chess, checkmates in the opening are examples of a player being
checkmated during the first few moves of the game (i.e. in the
opening). Some common or notable mating patterns have names of
their own. These include fool's mate, Scholar's mate, smothered
mate, the back rank checkmate, Boden's mate, epaulette mate, and
Ligal's mate.

Some opening traps involve an early checkmate. These include:
* Benoni Defense 1. d4 c5 2. d5 e6 3. Nc3 exd5?! 4. Nxd5 Ne7 5.
Bg5 h6 6. Bh4 Qa5+ 7. c3 Nf5?? 8. Qa4!! Qxa4 9. Nc7# 1-0
Yermolinsky-Tate, Reno 2001
* Blackburne Shilling Gambit 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bc4 Nd4?! 4.
Nxe5!? Qg5! 5. Nxf7?? Qxg2 6. Rf1 Qxe4+ 7. Be2 Nf3#
* Budapest Gambit: 1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 e5 3. dxe5 Ng4 4. Bf4 Nc6 5.
Nf3 Bb4+ 6. Nbd2 Qe7 7. a3 Ngxe5! 8. axb4?? Nd3#
* Budapest Gambit: 1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 e5 3. d5?! Bc5 4. Bg5? Ne4!
5. Bxd8?? Bxf2# Arnold-Hanauer, Philadelphia 1936
* Caro-Kann Defense: 1. e4 c6 2. d4 d5 3. Nc3 dxe4 4. Nxe4 Nd7
5. Qe2 Ngf6?? 6. Nd6# Alekhine-Four Amateurs, simultaneous
exhibition, Palma de Mallorca 1935
* Caro-Kann Defense: 1. e4 c6 2. d4 d5 3. Nc3 dxe4 4. Nxe4 Nd7
5. Bc4 Ngf6 6. Ng5 e6 7. Qe2 Nb6 8. Bd3 h6 9. N5f3 c5 10. dxc5
Nbd7!? 11. b4 b6 12. Nd4! bxc5?? 13. Nc6! Qc7 14. Qxe6+! (1-0
Perenyi-Eperjesi, Budapest 1974) fxe6 15. Bg6#
* Caro-Kann Defense: 1. e4 c6 2. Nc3 d5 3. Nf3 dxe4 4. Nxe4
Bf5?! 5. Ng3 Bg6? 6. h4 h6 7. Ne5 Bh7 8. Qh5! g6 9. Bc4! e6
10. Qe2 Nf6?? 11. Nxf7! Kxf7 12. Qxe6+ (1-0 Alekhine-Bruce,
Plymouth 1938) Kg7 13. Qf7#
* Caro-Kann Defense: 1. e4 c6 2. d4 d5 3. Nc3 dxe4 4. Nxe4 Nf6
5. Qd3!? e5?! 6. dxe5 Qa5+ 7. Bd2 Qxe5 8. 0-0-0! Nxe4?? 9.
Qd8+!! Kxd8 10. Bg5+ (Reti-Tartakower, Vienna 1910) 10. ...
Ke8 11. Rd8# or 10. ... Kc7 11. Bd8#
* Dutch Defense: 1. d4 f5 2. Bg5 h6 3. Bh4 g5 4. Bg3 f4? 5. e3
h5 (5. ... fxg3?? 6. Qh5#) 6. Bd3!? Rh6?? 7. Qxh5+! Rxh5 8.
Bg6# Teed-Delmar, New York 1896
* Dutch Defense: 1. d4 f5 2. h3 Nf6 3. g4 fxg4 4. hxg4 Nxg4 5.
Qd3 Nf6?? 6. Rxh7! Rxh7 7. Qg6#
* Englund Gambit 1. d4 e5?! 2. dxe5 Nc6 3. Nf3 Qe7 4. Bf4 Qb4+
5. Bd2 Qxb2 6. Bc3?? Bb4 7. Qd2 Bxc3 8. Qxc3 Qc1#
* French Defense (Reti Gambit) 1. e4 e6 2. b3 d5 3. Bb2 dxe4 4.
Nc3 Nf6 5. Qe2 Bb4 6. 0-0-0 Qe7 7. Nxe4 Ba3 8. Nxf6+ Qxf6 9.
Bxa3?? Qa1#
* Bird's Opening: From Gambit: 1. f4 e5 2. fxe5 d6 3. exd6 Bxd6
4. Nf3 (4. b3?? Qh4+ 5. g3 Qxg3+ 6. hxg3 Bxg3# Pantelidakis-
Rhine, Chicago 1974) g5 5. h3?? Bg3# Napetschnig-Rhine,
Chicago 1977
* Grunfeld Defense 1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 g6 3. Nc3 d5 4. cxd5 Nxd5 5.
e4 Nxc3 6. bxc3 Bg7 7. Bc4 c5 8. Ne2 cxd4 9. cxd4 Nc6 10. Be3
Qa5+!? 11. Bd2 Qa3 12. Rb1 0-0 13. d5? Ne5 14. Bb4? Qf3!! 15.
gxf3?? Nxf3+ 16. Kf1 Bh3#
* Marshall Defense 1. d4 d5 2. c4 Nf6?! 3. cxd5 Nxd5 4. Nf3 Nc6?
5. e4 Nf6 6. Nc3 Bg4 7. d5 Ne5? 8. Nxe5! Bxd1 9. Bb5+ c6 10.
dxc6 Qc7?? 11. cxb7+ Kd8 (after 11. ... Qd7 and 11. ... Nd7,
White mates, or forces mate, with 12. bxa8(Q) or bxa8(R)) 12.
* Nimzowitsch Defense 1. e4 Nc6 2. d4 d5 3. exd5 Qxd5 4. Nf3 Bg4
5. Nc3 Bxf3 6. Nxd5 Bxd1 7. Nxc7+ Kd8 8. Nxa8 Bxc2 9. Bf4 Nxd4
10. Nc7? e5! 11. Bxe5?? Bb4#. Also possible is 7. ... Kd7 8.
Nxa8 Bxc2 9. Bf4 e5 10. dxe5 Bb4+ 11. Ke2 Nge7 12. e6+ fxe6
13. Nc7?? Nd4+ 14. Ke3 Nef5# Kiss-Barcza, Debrecen 1930.
* Owen's Defense 1. e4 b6 2. d4 Bb7 3. Bd3 f5?! 4. exf5! Bxg2 5.
Qh5+ g6 6. fxg6! Nf6?? 7. gxh7+! Nxh5 8. Bg6# Greco-N.N., Rome
* Petrov's Defense 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nf6 3. Nxe5 Nc6?! 4. Nxc6
dxc6 5. d3 Bc5 6. Bg5? Nxe4! 7. Bxd8?? Bxf2+ 8. Ke2 Bg4#
* Philidor Defense 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 d6 3. Bc4 Bg4?! 4. Nc3 g6? 5.
Nxe5! Bxd1?? 6. Bxf7+ Ke7 7. Nd5# Ligal-Saint Brie, Paris
1750. This mating pattern is now called Ligal's mate.
* Richter-Veresov Attack 1. d4 Nf6 2. Nc3 d5 3. Bg5 c5!? 4. Bxf6
exf6!? 5. dxc5 d4 6. Ne4 Bf5 7. Ng3? Bxc5! 8. Nxf5? Qa5+! 9.
c3 dxc3 10. b4 Bxb4 11. Qc2 Qxf5! 12. Qxf5?? c2# N.N.-Rhine,
Chicago 1977.
* Modern Defense (Robatsch Defense): 1. e4 g6 2. Nf3 d6 3. Bc4
Nd7?? 4. Bxf7+! Kxf7 5. Ng5+ Kf6 (otherwise 6. Ne6 wins the
queen) 6. Qf3+ Kxg5 (6. ... Ke5 7. Qc3+ Kf4 8. Qg3#) 7. d4+
Kh4 8. Qh3#
* Ruy Lopez: 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 a6 4. Ba4 Nf6 5. 0-0
Nxe4 6. d4 exd4?! 7. Re1 d5 8. Nxd4 Bd6 9. Nxc6 Bxh2+! 10.
Kh1! Qh4 11. Rxe4+! dxe4 12. Qd8+! Qxd8 13. Nxd8+ Kxd8 14.
Kxh2 f5?? 15. Bg5#
* Ruy Lopez: 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 a6 4. Bxc6 dxc6 5. 0-0
Bg4 6. h3 h5 7. d3 Qf6 8. Be3 Ne7 9. Nbd2 Ng6 10. hxg4? hxg4
11. Ng5 Nf4 12. Qxg4 Qxg5! (0-1 Hans Bohm-Roman Hernandez,
Amsterdam 1979) 13. Qxg5 Ne2#
* Ruy Lopez: 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 Nf6 4. 0-0 d6 5. d4
Nxe4? 6. d5 a6 7. Bd3 Nf6 8. dxc6 e4 9. Re1 d5 10. Be2! exf3??
(Black had to play 10. ... bxc6) 11. cxb7 Bxb7 (if 11. ...
fxe2, 12. bxa8(Q)) 12. Bb5# Nimzowitsch-Ryckhoff, simultaneous
exhibition, Parnu 1910.
* Scandinavian Defense 1. e4 d5 2. exd5 Qxd5 3. Nc3 Qa5 4. d4 c6
5. Nf3 Bg4 6. Bf4 e6 7. h3 Bxf3 8. Qxf3 Bb4 9. Be2 Nd7 10. a3
0-0-0?? 11. axb4!! Qxa1+ 12. Kd2! Qxh1 13. Qxc6+! bxc6 14.
Ba6# Canal-N.N., Budapest 1934 (the "Peruvian Immortal": White
sacrifices both rooks and his queen to finish with Boden's
* Sicilian Defense: 1. e4 c5 2. d4 cxd4 3. c3 dxc3 4. Nxc3 Nc6
5. Nf3 e6 6. Bc4 Qc7 7. 0-0 Nf6 8. Qe2 Ng4! 9. h3?? Nd4!
(winning White's queen, at least) 10. Nxd4? Qh2# (the Siberian
* Sicilian Defense: 1. e4 c5 2. d4 cxd4 3. c3 d5 4. exd5 Qxd5 5.
Nf3?! Bg4 6. Qa4+ Nc6 7. Nxd4 Bd7 8. Nb5? 0-0-0! 9. Nxa7+??
Nxa7 10. Qxa7 Qd1+!! (0-1 Dutch-Sugden, London 1964) 11. Kxd1
Bg4+ 12. Kc2 Bd1# or 12. Ke1 Rd1# (an ending strikingly
similar to Reti-Tartakower, Vienna 1910, cited under Caro-Kann
Defense, above)
* Sicilian Defense: 1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 Nf6 3. e5 Nd5 4. Nc3 e6 5.
Nxd5 exd5 6. d4 Nc6 7. dxc5 Bxc5 8. Qxd5 Qb6 9. Bc4 Bxf2+ 10.
Ke2 0-0 11. Rf1 Bc5 12. Ng5 Nd4+ 13. Kd1 Ne6 14. Ne4 d6 15.
exd6 Bxd6?? 16. Nxd6 Rd8 17. Bf4! Nxf4? 18. Qxf7+ Kh8 19.
Qg8+! (1-0 Unzicker-Sarapu, Siegen Olympiad 1970) Rxg8 20.
* Sicilian Defense: 1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 d6 3. d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4 Nf6 5.
Nc3 a6 6. Bg5 e6 7. f4 b5 8. e5 dxe5 9. fxe5 Qc7 10. Qe2 Nfd7
11. 0-0-0 Bb7 12. Qg4 Qxe5 13. Bd3 Nf6? 14. Bxf6 Qxf6? 15.
Rhe1 h5 16. Nxe6! Be7 (16. ... hxg4 17. Bxb5+! Ke7 (17. ...
axb5? 18. Nc7# or 18. Nxg7#) 18. Nxf8+ Kxf8? 19. Re8#) 17.
Bxb5+! axb5 18. Nc7+! Kf8 19. Rd8+! Bxd8 20. Re8# Tal-N.N.,
England 1974.
* Three Knights Game 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Nc3 g6 4. d4 exd4 5.
Nd5 Bg7 6. Bg5 Nge7? 7. Nxd4! Bxd4?? 8. Qxd4! Nxd4 9. Nf6+ Kf8
10. Bh6#
* Two Knights Defense 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bc4 Nf6 4. Ng5 d5
5. exd5 Nxd5 6. Nxf7 Kxf7 7. Qf3+ Ke8? 8. Bxd5 Bd7?? (or
several other moves) 9. Qf7#
* Vienna Game 1. e4 e5 2. Nc3 Nf6 3. Bc4 Nxe4 4. Bxf7+ (4. Nxe4
d5) Kxf7 5. Nxe4 Nc6 6. Qf3+ Kg8?? 7. Ng5! Qxg5 8. Qd5#

2. Italian Game, Blackburne Shilling Gambit

1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bc4 Nd4
Wilhelm Steinitz, The Modern Chess Instructor, Part II, 1895.
Named after Legend on Blackburne (see text)
Kostic Gambit

The Blackburne Shilling Gambit is the name facetiously given to a
dubious chess opening, derived from an offshoot of the Italian
Game, that begins

1. e4 e5
2. Nf3 Nc6
3. Bc4 Nd4?!

It is also sometimes referred to as the Kostic Gambit after the
Serbian grandmaster Borislav Kostic, who played it in the early
20th century.

The first known mention of this line was by Steinitz, who noted it
in 1895 in the Addenda to his Modern Chess Instructor, Part II. The
earliest game with the opening on chessgames.com is Dunlop-Hicks,
New Zealand Championship 1911. Another early game, mentioned by
Bill Wall, is Muhlock-Kostic, Cologne 1912.

Black's third move is, objectively speaking, a weak, time-wasting
move. Steinitz recommended 4. 0-0 or 4. Nxd4 in response.

International Master Jeremy Silman writes that White has an
advantage after 4. 0-0, 4. c3, or 4. Nc3. He recommends as best 4.
Nxd4! exd4 5. c3 d5 6. exd5 Qe7+ 7. Kf1 with a slight advantage for
White. 5. ... Bc5? loses a pawn to 6. Bxf7+! Kxf7 7. Qh5+.

The only virtue of 3. ... Nd4 is that it sets a trap that has
ensnared many players. After the natural

4. Nxe5!?

Black wins material with

4. ... Qg5!

Now the obvious

5. Nxf7??

loses to

5. ... Qxg2
6. Rf1 Qxe4+
7. Be2 Nf3#

... a smothered mate. This trap is what gives the line its name;
the great English master Joseph Henry Blackburne reputedly used it
to win shillings from amateurs. However, Wall has questioned this,
stating that there are no recorded games of Blackburne with the

The opening is not a true gambit, since White cannot take the pawn
on e5 without losing material. However, after 4. Nxe5 Qg5, White
can maintain a playable game with 5. Bxf7+! Steinitz wrote that
this move, "followed by castling, is now White's best chance and in
some measure a promising one, considering that he has two Pawns and
the attack for the piece". After

4. Nxe5 Qg5
5. Bxf7+ Ke7?

(5. ... Kd8!? 6. 0-0 (6. Ng4? Nh6! -+) +/=)

6. 0-0 Qxe5
7. Bxg8

(7. Bc4 is also possible)

7. ... Rxg8
8. c3 Nc6

(8. ... Ne6 9. d4! Qxe4? 10. d5 Nf4?? 11. Re1 pins Black's queen
against his king and wins; Silman analyzes 9. ... Qf6 10. f4 when
"with two pawns and an attack for the sacrificed piece, White's
compensation isn't in doubt".

9. d4

White's two extra pawns, strong center, and lead in development,
combined with Black's awkwardly placed king, give White strong
compensation for the sacrificed knight.

G. Chandler-NN, Stockbridge 1983, concluded that

9. ... Qa5?

(9. ... Qf6 10. e5 Qf7 may be best)

10. d5 Ne5?
11. Qh5! Nf7?

(11. ... d6 12. Bg5+ Kd7 13. Qxh7 also wins for White)

12. d6+!

(in light of 13. Qxa5.)

Graham Burgess writes that 3. ... Nd4 is also known as the "Oh my
god!" trap, as for full effect, Black is supposed to make this
exclamation, pretending to have accidentally blundered the e-pawn.
Burgess condemns this behavior as unethical, and notes that the
trap, if avoided, leaves White with a large advantage.

3. Queen's Gambit Declined, Elephant Trap

1. d4 d5 2. c4 e6 3. Nc3 Nf6 4. Bg5 Nbd7

In chess, the Elephant Trap is a faulty attempt by White to win a
pawn in a popular variation of the Queen's Gambit Declined. This
simple trap has snared thousands of players, generally amateurs.
The earliest recorded occurrence of this trap seems to be Karl
Mayet-Daniel Harrwitz, Berlin 1848.

1. d4 d5
2. c4 e6
3. Nc3 Nf6
4. Bg5 Nbd7

This sequence of opening moves usually indicates that Black intends
to play the Cambridge Springs Defense with 5. Nf3 c6 6. e3 Qa5, but
it can also lead to the Orthodox Defense if Black plays ... Be7.
(The Cambridge Springs opening had not yet been invented in 1848
when Mayet-Harrwitz was played.)

Black has set a trap; if White tries to win a pawn by

5. cxd5 exd5
6. Nxd5??

White thinks that the black knight on f6 is pinned to the queen and
cannot be moved.

6. ... Nxd5!
7. Bxd8 Bb4+

Black regains the queen as White has only one legal move to get out
of check.

8. Qd2 Bxd2+

Harrwitz played the equally good 8. ... Kxd8, intending 9. ...

9. Kxd2 Kxd8

Black comes out a minor piece ahead.

4. Blackmar-Diemer Gambit, Halosar Trap

1. d4 d5 2. e4 dxe4 3. Nc3 Nf6 4. f3 exf3 5. Qxf3 Qxd4 6. Be3
Qb4?! 7. 0-0-0 Bg4?

The Halosar Trap (named after Hermann Halosar) is a chess opening
trap in the Blackmar-Diemer Gambit.

The trap begins with the moves

1. d4 d5
2. e4

This is the start of the Blackmar-Diemer Gambit.

2. ... dxe4
3. Nc3 Nf6
4. f3 exf3

Now 5. Nxf3 is usual, but by capturing with the queen, White lays
a trap. (This is the Ryder Gambit.)

5. Qxf3 Qxd4
6. Be3 Qb4?!

Better is 6. ... Qg4. Black thinks that castling is prevented
because of ... Bg4, but White castles anyway.

7. 0-0-0 Bg4?

Blundering into the trap.

8. Nb5!!

White threatens mate with 9. Nxc7#. The Black queen can't capture
the knight because 8. ... Qxb5 9. Bxb5+ is check and loses the

8. ... Na6
9. Qxb7 Qe4

Black lost even more quickly in Diemer-Halosar, Baden-Baden 1934,
after 9. ... Rc8 10. Qxa6 1-0.

10. Qxa6 Qxe3+

Worse is 10. ... Bxd1 11. Kxd1 Rd8+ 12. Bd2 and White is winning,
for example 12. ... Ng4 13. Nxc7+ Kd7 14. Qxa7.

11. Kb1 Qc5
12. Nf3

The White threat of 13. Qb7 wins the black a-pawn by force. With
even material and a passed a-pawn, White will have a winning
advantage (Burgess). Even stronger seems 12. Qb7! with the idea 12.
... Bxd1 13. Qxa8+ Kd7 14. Nc3 and White has a winning attack.

5. Budapest Gambit, Kieninger Trap

1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 e5!? 3. dxe5 Ng4 4. Bf4 Nc6 5. Nf3 Bb4+ Nbd2
Qe7 7. a3 Ngxe5!

Position after 7. ... Ngxe5!

The Kieninger Trap is a chess opening trap in the Budapest Gambit
named after the German International Master Georg Kieninger, who
used it in an offhand game against Godai at Vienna in 1925. It is
one of the most frequently seen opening traps.

The main line of the Budapest Gambit begins with the moves

1. d4 Nf6
2. c4 e5!?
3. dxe5 Ng4

Black has sacrificed a pawn to disorganize White's position. In the
next few moves, Black tries to regain the gambit pawn, while White
tries to hold onto it, at least for the time being:

4. Bf4 Nc6
5. Nf3 Bb4+

Black wants to continue the attack on e5 with ... Qe7, but first
develops the bishop rather than blocking it in. Now 6. Nc3 Qe7 7.
Qd5!?, holding onto the pawn, is playable, but White prefers to
avoid doubled pawns.

6. Nbd2 Qe7

Now Black regains the pawn by force, so White tries to obtain the
advantage of the bishop pair:

7. a3 Ngxe5!

Simply 7. ... Bxd2+ was possible, but this move sets the trap. Now
White should play 8. Nxe5 Nxe5! 9. e3! Bxd2+ 10. Qxd2 with a small

8. axb4??

White, like thousands of previous players, falls into the Kieninger

8. ... Nd3#!

White has been checkmated. Note that Black's queen pins White's e-
pawn against its king, so 9. exd3 is illegal since it would put
White's king in check. Also notice that if 8. Bxe5 Nxe5 White still
cannot play axb4 because of Nd3#.

6. Albin Countergambit, Lasker Trap

1. d4 d5 2. c4 e5 3. dxe5 d4 4. e3? Bb4+ 5. Bd2 dxe3!

Position after 5. ... dxe3

The Lasker Trap is a chess opening trap in the Albin Countergambit,
named after Emanuel Lasker, although it was first noted by Serafino
Dubois (Hooper & Whyld 1996, p. 219). It is unusual in that it
features an underpromotion as early as the seventh move.

The Albin Countergambit begins with the moves

1. d4 d5
2. c4 e5
3. dxe5 d4

The Black pawn on d4 is stronger than it appears.

4. e3?

Careless. Usual and better is 4. Nf3.

4. ... Bb4+
5. Bd2 dxe3!

Now White's best option is to accept doubled pawns with 6. fxe3.

6. Bxb4??

Blundering into the Lasker Trap. In an 1899 consultation game in
Moscow, Blumenfeld, Boyarkow, and Falk playing White against Lasker
tried 6. Qa4+?, but Black wins after this move also. The game
continued 6. ... Nc6 7. Bxb4 Qh4 8. Ne2 Qxf2+ 9. Kd1 Bg4 10. Nc3
0-0-0+ 11. Bd6 cxd6 12. e6 fxe6 13. Kc1 Nf6 14. b4 d5 15. b5 Ne5
16. cxd5 Nxd5 17. Qc2 Nb4 18. Nd1+ Nxc2 19. Nxf2 Rd2 White resigns.

The Encyclopedia of Chess Openings (volume D) gives 6. fxe3 as the
relatively best move. Black gets a slight advantage, but White has
avoided the worst and can defend.

6. ... exf2+

Now 7. Kxf2 would lose the queen to 7. ... Qxd1, so White must play
7. Ke2.

7. Ke2 fxg1=N+!

Underpromotion is the key to the trap. Instead 7. ... fxg1=Q 8.
Qxd8+ Kxd8 9. Rxg1 is OK for White. Now 8. Rxg1 Bg4+ skewers
White's queen, so the king must move again.

8. Ke1 Qh4+

If White tries 9. g3 then the fork 9. ... Qe4+ wins the rook on h1.

9. Kd2 Nc6

White is hopelessly lost. After 10. Bc3 Bg4 followed by 11. ...
0-0-0+ is crushing.

7. Italian Game, Ligal Trap

1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bc4 d6 4. Nc3 Bg4?! 5. h3 Bh5?

The Ligal Trap, Blackburne Trap, also known as Ligal Pseudo-
Sacrifice and Ligal Mate is a chess opening trap, characterized by
a queen sacrifice followed by checkmate with minor pieces if Black
accepts the sacrifice. The trap is named after Sire de Ligal
(1702-1792) who was a French player, or Joseph Henry Blackburne
(1841-1924), who was a British master and one of the world's
strongest players in the latter part of the 19th century.

7.A Natural move sequence

After 5. ... Bh5?

There are a number of ways the trap can arise, one of them being:

1. e4 e5
2. Nf3 Nc6
3. Bc4 d6

While 3. ... d6 is a playable answer to the Italian Game, it is
somewhat passive, and transposes to a line in the Philidor Defense.

4. Nc3 Bg4?!

Black apparently pins the knight in the fight over the center.
Strategically, this is a sound idea, but there is a tactical flaw
with the move.

5. h3

In this position 5. Nxe5? would be an unsound trap. While the white
queen still cannot be taken (5. ... Bxd1??) without succumbing to
a checkmate in two moves, 5. ... Nxe5 would win a knight (for the
pawn). Instead, with 5. h3, White "puts the question" to the bishop
which must either retreat on the c8-h3 diagonal, capture the
knight, be captured, or as in this game, move to an insecure

The Ligal mate: 8. Nd5#

5. ... Bh5?

Black apparently maintains the pin, but this is a tactical blunder
which loses at least a pawn. Relatively best is 5. ... Bxf3,
surrendering the bishop pair, and giving White a comfortable lead
in development, but maintaining material equality. 5. ... Be6!? is
also possible.

6. Nxe5!

The tactical refutation. White seemingly ignores the pin, and
surrenders the queen. Black's best course now is to play 6. ...
Nxe5, where with 7. Qxh5 Nxc4 8. Qb5+ followed by 9. Qxc4, White
remains a pawn ahead in material, but Black can at least play on.
Instead, if Black takes the queen, White has checkmate in two

6. ... Bxd1??
7. Bxf7+ Ke7
8. Nd5#


The final position is a pure mate, meaning that for each of the
eight squares around the black king, there is exactly one reason
the king cannot move there.

7.B Minimum requirements

In general, any game having a knight on e5 and ending with the
moves Bxf7+ Ke7 Nd5# would be called a Ligal Mate. Making a "trap"
by luring a bishop on g4 or h5 into a queen capture on d1 is not
strictly necessary. In order for the last move to be checkmate, it
is of course necessary that black have pieces on squares d6, d8,
and f8, and that black have no pieces attacking the square d5.

7.C Original game

The game Ligal (playing at rook odds, without Ra1) against Saint
Brie in Paris 1750, went as follows:
1. e4 e5
2. Nf3 d6
3. Bc4 Bg4?!
4. Nc3 g6
5. Nxe5 Bxd1?
6. Bxf7+ Ke7
7. Nd5#

7.D Cheron-Jeanlose

At a simultaneous exhibition in Paris, Andre Cheron, one of
France's leading players, played a similar trap in the game Cheron-
1. e4 e5
2. Nf3 d6
3. Bc4 Nc6
4. Nc3 Bg4?!
5. h3! Bh5?
6. Nxe5!

If 6. ... Nxe5 7. Qxh5 Nxc4 8. Qb5+ wins the knight.

6. ... Bxd1??
7. Bxf7+ Ke7
8. Nd5#

7.E Other variations

Sometimes the mate can be administered by a different piece. This
game came from the Petrov's Defense; and is very old:
1. e4 e5
2. Nf3 Nf6
3. Nxe5 Nc6?!
4. Nxc6 dxc6
5. d3 Bc5
6. Bg5? Nxe4!?

(if White responds with 7. dxe4 he will win a pawn for a knight.
Instead he carries out the pin.)

7. Bxd8?? Bxf2+
8. Ke2 Bg4#

7.F Occurrence

This kind of mate, where an apparently pinned knight moves anyway,
allowing capture of the queen, but leading to a checkmate with both
knights and a bishop, occasionally occurs at lower levels of play,
though masters would not normally fall for it. According to Bjerke
(Spillet i mitt liv), the Ligal Trap has ensnared countless unwary
players. One author writes that "Blackburne sprang it several
hundreds of times during his annual tours."

8. Sicilian Defense, Magnus Smith Trap

1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 d6 3. d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4 Nf6 5. Nc3 Nc6 6. Bc4
The Magnus Smith Trap is a chess opening trap in the Sicilian
Defense, named after three-time Canadian chess champion Magnus
Smith (1869-1934).

The trap occurs in the Sozin Variation, beginning with the moves

1. e4 c5
2. Nf3 d6
3. d4 cxd4
4. Nxd4 Nf6
5. Nc3 Nc6
6. Bc4

This is the Sozin (or Fischer) Variation of the Sicilian Defense.
A common response is 6. ... e6, to make White's bishop on c4 "bite
on granite". By playing 6. ... g6?!, Black falls into the trap.

6. ... g6?!
7. Nxc6 bxc6
8. e5!

Black is in a bad way. After 8. ... Nh5?, Bobby Fischer gives 9.
Qf3! e6 (9. ... d5 10. Nxd5!) 10. g4 Ng7 11. Ne4 Qa5+ (11. ... d5
12. Nf6+ Ke7 13. Qa3+) 12. Bd2 Qxe5 13. Bc3 and Black's queen is
trapped. Preferable alternatives are 8. ... Ng4 9. e6 f5, and Black
eventually managed to draw in Schlechter-Lasker, World Championship
(7) 1910 and 8. ... d5 9. exf6 dxc4 10. Qxd8+ Kxd8 11. Bg5 Be6 12.
0-0-0+ Ke8, and Black ultimately even won in Rosen-Burn, Paris

The move Black actually chooses leads to instant disaster.

8. ... dxe5??
9. Bxf7+

White wins Black's queen after

9. ... Kxf7
10. Qxd8

9. Petrov's Defense, Marshall Trap

1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nf6 3. Nxe5 d6 4. Nf3 Nxe4 5. d4 d5 6. Bd3 Bd6
7. 0-0 0-0 8. c4 Bg4 9. cxd5 f5 10. Re1?

The Marshall Trap is a chess opening trap in Petrov's Defense named
after Frank Marshall.

The trap begins with the moves

1. e4 e5
2. Nf3 Nf6

Black plays Petrov's Defense.

3. Nxe5 d6
4. Nf3 Nxe4
5. d4 d5
6. Bd3 Bd6
7. 0-0 0-0
8. c4 Bg4
9. cxd5 f5
10. Re1?

White should play 10. Nc3 instead.

10. ... Bxh2+!

An unexpected blow.

11. Kxh2 Nxf2

Black forks the white queen and bishop, forcing the queen to move.

12. Qe2 Nxd3
13. Qxd3 Bxf3

Black threatens ... Qh4+ forking the white king and rook, winning

10. Bogo-Indian Defense, Monticelli Trap

1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 e6 3. Nf3 Bb4+ 4. Bd2 Bxd2+ 5. Qxd2 b6 6. g3
Bb7 7. Bg2 0-0 8. Nc3 Ne4 9. Qc2 Nxc3 10. Ng5!

The Monticelli Trap is a chess opening trap in the Bogo-Indian
Defense, named for Italian champion Mario Monticelli from the game
Monticelli-Prokes, Budapest 1926.

The trap begins with the moves

1. d4 Nf6
2. c4 e6

Black plays the Indian Defense.

3. Nf3 Bb4+

Black plays the Bogo-Indian Defense.

4. Bd2 Bxd2+
5. Qxd2 b6
6. g3 Bb7
7. Bg2 O-O
8. Nc3 Ne4
9. Qc2 Nxc3
10. Ng5!

Black must respond to two different threats: the mate threat 11.
Qxh7# and 11. Bxb7 winning a bishop and a rook.

However, chess legend Jose Razl Capablanca (Black) showed this trap
wasn't so irrefutable when he drew in a game against fellow legend
Max Euwe (White) in 1931 (Amsterdam).

Capablanca responded with

10. ... Ne4!
11. Bxe4 Bxe4
12. Qxe4 Qxg5
13. Qxa8 Nc6
14. Qb7 Nxd4
15. Rd1 c5
16. e3 Nc2+
17. Kd2 Qf5
18. Qg2 Nb4
19. e4 Qf6
20. Kc1 Nxa2+
21. Kb1 Nb4
22. Rxd7 Nc6
23. f4 e5
24. Rhd1 Nd4
25. Rxa7 exf4
26. gxf4 Qxf4
27. Re1 Nf3
28. Re2 Nd4
29. Re1

Nonetheless, this trap is still a massive blow to most opponents.

11. Ruy Lopez, Mortimer Trap

1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 Nf6 4. d3 Ne7

The Mortimer Trap is a chess opening trap in the Ruy Lopez named
after James Mortimer. The Mortimer Trap is a true trap in the sense
that Black deliberately plays an inferior move hoping to trick
White into making a mistake.

The trap begins with the moves:

1. e4 e5
2. Nf3 Nc6
3. Bb5 Nf6

Black plays the Berlin Defense to the Ruy Lopez. Although the
Berlin was much more popular in the 19th century than in the 20th,
it "became the height of theory when Kramnik used it as his main
defense to defeat Kasparov in their 2000 World Championship match".

4. d3

White plays a quiet alternative to the more common 4. 0-0, 4. d4,
or 4. Nc3 (the latter would transpose to the Four Knights Game).
Horowitz and Reinfeld wrote that 4. d3 is "Steinitz's move, with
which he scored many spectacular successes during his long reign as
World Champion." (Horowitz and Reinfeld 1954, p. 59)

4. ... Ne7

The Mortimer Defense, intending to reroute the knight to g6. This
rare move loses time and thus is inferior to other moves, but it
sets a trap. White has many acceptable replies, but the tempting
capture of the black pawn on e5 is a mistake.

5. Nxe5? c6!

Attacking the white bishop and threatening 6. ... Qa5+. If the
bishop moves (6. Ba4 or 6. Bc4), Black wins a piece with 6. ...
Qa5+, forking the white king and knight.

6. Nc4

White's best try, covering a5 and thus preventing 6. ... Qa5+, and
threatening smothered mate with 7. Nd6#.

6. ... d6!
7. Ba4 b5

Black forks the white bishop and knight, winning a piece for two

Mortimer played his defense at the 1883 London tournament against
Englisch, Rosenthal, and Noa, losing all three games. Zukertort,
the tournament winner, also played it against Englisch, the game
resulting in a draw.

Zukertort wrote of 4. ... Ne7, "Mr. Mortimer claims to be the
inventor of this move. I adopted it on account of its novelty."

The first edition of the treatise Chess Openings, Ancient and
Modern analyzed 5. Nc3 Ng6 6. 0-0 c6 7. Ba4 d6 8. Bb3 and now the
authors gave either 8. ... Be6 or 8. ... Be7 as giving Black an
equal game.

A bit more recently, Horowitz and Reinfeld observed of 4. ... Ne7,
"This time-wasting retreat of the Knight to an inferior square
blocks the development of the King Bishop ... Yet it is a matter of
record that this pitfall had a vogue for many years".

Today, 4. d3 is rarely seen, and 4. ... Ne7 still less so. The
latter move is not mentioned in either Modern Chess Openings (which
relegates 4. d3 to a footnote, and mentions only 4. ... d6 in
response) or the Encyclopedia of Chess Openings (which mentions
only 4. ... d6 and 4. ... Bc5).

12. Ruy Lopez, Noah's Ark Trap

1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 a6 4. Ba4 d6 5. d4? b5 6. Bb3 Nxd4
7. Nxd4 exd4 8. Qxd4??

The Noah's Ark Trap is a chess opening trap in the Ruy Lopez. The
name is actually used to describe a family of traps in the Ruy
Lopez in which a white bishop is trapped on the b3-square by black

The origin of the name is uncertain. The shape of the black pawns
on a6, b5, and c4 may resemble an ark, or the name may suggest that
the trap is "old as Noah's Ark".

Even chess masters have occasionally fallen victim to this trap. An
example is Endre Steiner-Jose Capablanca at the Budapest tournament
in 1929.

1. e4 e5
2. Nf3 Nc6
3. Bb5 a6
4. Ba4 d6
5. d4(?)

Better moves for White are 5. c3, 5. Bxc6+, and 5. 0-0.

5. ... b5
6. Bb3 Nxd4
7. Nxd4 exd4
8. Qxd4??

Alexander Alekhine recommended this move in the tournament book for
New York 1924 as a means for White to draw, but it is a mistake
that loses material. White should instead play 8. Bd5 or try a
gambit with 8. c3.

8. ... c5
9. Qd5 Be6
10. Qc6+ Bd7
11. Qd5 c4

The white king bishop is trapped. White resigned after move 32.

13. Queen's Gambit Declined, Rubinstein Trap

1. Nf3 d5 2. c4 e6 3. d4 Nf6 4. Bg5 Nbd7 5. e3 Be7 6. Nc3 0-0
7. Rc1 c6 8. Bd3 a6 9. cxd5 exd5 10. 0-0 Re8 11. Qb3 h6 12.
Bf4 Nh5?

The Rubinstein Trap is a chess opening trap in the Queen's Gambit
Declined, Orthodox Defense. Black loses a pawn after the
characteristic move Nxd5 due to the threat of having his queen
trapped on the back rank by Bc7. The queen is attacked by a white
bishop while being hemmed in by its own pieces.

The trap takes its name from Akiba Rubinstein who had the
misfortune of falling into it twice in the games Max Euwe-
Rubinstein, Bad Kissingen 1928, and Alexander Alekhine-Rubinstein,
San Remo 1930. Rubinstein was not the first to fall victim to the
trap, as the first recorded game featuring the trap is Amos Burn-
Heinrich Wolf, Ostend 1905.

Euwe-Rubinstein, 1928, began

1. Nf3 d5
2. c4 e6
3. d4 Nf6

Transposing into the Queen's Gambit Declined, Orthodox Defense.

4. Bg5 Nbd7
5. e3 Be7
6. Nc3 0-0
7. Rc1 c6
8. Bd3 a6
9. cxd5 exd5
10. 0-0 Re8
11. Qb3 h6
12. Bf4 Nh5?

Black falls into the trap.

13. Nxd5

Now Black will lose a pawn after 13. ... Nxf4 14. Nxf4 or more
after 13. ... cxd5 14. Bc7 when the black queen is trapped on the
back rank by her own pieces.

14. Sicilian Defense, Smith-Morra Gambit, Siberian Trap

1. e4 c5 2. d4 cxd4 3. c3 dxc3 4. Nxc3 Nc6 5. Nf3 e6 6. Bc4
Qc7 7. 0-0 Nf6 8. Qe2 Ng4! 9. h3??

The Siberian Trap is a chess opening trap. After a series of
natural moves in the Smith-Morra Gambit of the Sicilian Defense,
White can lose a queen. The name appears to result from Boris
Shipkov of Novosibirsk.

The trap has occurred at least twice in tournament play: Kolenbet-
Shipkov, Khabarovsk 1987, and Tesinsky-Magerramov, Budapest 1990.

Here are the moves:

1. e4 c5

This is the Sicilian Defense.

2. d4 cxd4
3. c3 dxc3

White's 3. c3 introduces the Smith-Morra Gambit. Black accepts the
gambit pawn.

4. Nxc3 Nc6
5. Nf3 e6
6. Bc4 Qc7
7. 0-0 Nf6
8. Qe2

White prepares e4-e5. This move is playable if White is careful on
the next move. After 8. Re1 Bc5 Black has a good game as White's f2
square is sensitive. White also doesn't achieve much after 8. h3
a6. Instead, NCO suggests 8. Nb5 Qb8 9. e5 Nxe5 10. Nxe5 Qxe5 11.
Re1 and White has some compensation for the sacrificed pawns.

8. ... Ng4!
9. h3??

This is a decisive mistake. The same fate befell White after 9.
Bb3?? in Kramadzhian-Shipkov, Novosibirsk 1988. Another try that
doesn't work is 9. Rd1 Bc5. MCO-14 recommends 9. Nb5! Qb8
(threatening 10. ... a6 11. Nc3 Nd4!) 10. h3 h5 11. g3 Nge5 12.
Nxe5 Nxe5 13. Bf4 a6 with a sharp position with roughly equal

9. ... Nd4!

The Black threat of 10. ... Nxf3+ followed by 11. ... Qh2# wins
White's queen, at least. If 10. Nxd4?, Qh2#.

15. Ruy Lopez, Tarrasch Trap

Tarrasch Trap refers to two different chess opening traps in the
Ruy Lopez that are named for Siegbert Tarrasch. Unlike many
variations that appear only in analysis, Tarrasch actually sprung
his traps against masters in tournament games.

16.A Tarrasch Trap in the Open Variation

1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 a6 4. Ba4 Nf6 5. 0-0 Nxe4 6. d4 b5
7. Bb3 d5 8. dxe5 Be6 9. c3 Be7 10. Re1 0-0 11. Nd4 Qd7?

Two masters actually fell for this trap against Tarrasch: Zukertort
at Frankfurt in 1887 and Gunsberg at Manchester in 1890.

1. e4 e5
2. Nf3 Nc6
3. Bb5 a6
4. Ba4 Nf6
5. 0-0 Nxe4

This is the Open Variation of the Ruy Lopez.

6. d4 b5
7. Bb3 d5
8. dxe5 Be6
9. c3 Be7
10. Re1 0-0
11. Nd4 Qd7?

Falling into the trap.

12. Nxe6

Black's pawn on d5 will be pinned no matter how he recaptures.
After 12. ... Qxe6 or 12. ... fxe6 White wins a piece with 13.

16.B Tarrasch Trap in the Steinitz Variation

1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 d6 4. d4 Bd7 5. Nc3 Nf6 6. O00 Be7
7. Re1 0-0?

The second Tarrasch Trap occurs in the Steinitz Variation. Tarrasch
published analysis of this trap in 1891, but 18 months later Marco
fell into it in Tarrasch-Marco Dresden 1892. Tarrasch spent just 5
minutes of thinking for the whole game.

1. e4 e5
2. Nf3 Nc6
3. Bb5 d6

This is the Steinitz Variation of the Ruy Lopez.

4. d4 Bd7

Black breaks the pin to meet the threat of 5. d5.

5. Nc3 Nf6
6. 0-0 Be7
7. Re1

Laying a subtle trap Castling seems natural for Black, but instead
7. ... exd4 is better.

7. ... O-O?
8. Bxc6 Bxc6
9. dxe5 dxe5
10. Qxd8 Raxd8
11. Nxe5

Black's best move here is probably 11. ... Bd7, although White
would remain a pawn ahead.

11. ... Bxe4
12. Nxe4 Nxe4

Now 13. Rxe4?? would be a horrible blunder as Black would checkmate
with 13. ... Rd1+ 14. Re1 Rxe1#. White blocks that possibility with
his next move, making the threat real against the black knight on

13. Nd3 f5

The black knight can't move because of the pin against the bishop
on e7.

14. f3 Bc5+
15. Nxc5 Nxc5
16. Bg5 Rd5
17. Be7 Re8
18. c4

White wins at least the exchange, so Marco resigned.

17. Vienna Game, Wurzburger Trap

1. e4 e5 2. Nc3 Nf6 3. f4 d5 4. fxe5 Nxe4 5. d3 Qh4+ 6. g3
Nxg3 7. Nf3 Qh5 8. Nxd5 Bg4 9. Nf4 Bxf3 10. Nxh5 Bxd1 11. hxg3

The Wurzburger Trap is a chess opening trap in the Vienna Gambit.
It was named around 1930 for German banker Max Wurzburger.

The trap begins with the moves

1. e4 e5
2. Nc3 Nf6
3. f4

White plays the Vienna Gambit. Black's next move is thought to be
the best reply.

3. ... d5
4. fxe5 Nxe4
5. d3 Qh4+
6. g3 Nxg3
7. Nf3 Qh5
8. Nxd5 Bg4
9. Nf4 Bxf3
10. Nxh5 Bxd1
11. hxg3 Bxc2?

Black tries to win a pawn, but instead loses a piece.

12. b3

The black bishop on c2 is trapped, and next turn white can move his
king to d2, attacking the bishop.

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